Ammonia / NH₃
Threshold limit value
Ammonia : Description and use
Ammonia is a chemical compound with the formula NH₃ (from the generic group of hydrogen nitrides). It is a colourless gas with a pungent and irritating odour and is lighter than air. It liquefies readily. Very soluble in water (33.1% by weight at 20°C), heat is released when it is dissolved. The solutions obtained are known as ammonia solutions.
Flammability: The risk of ammonia causing a fire is relatively low. It has a flammability limit and can even explode, but it does not catch fire easily. It has to be in contact with materials or a surface with a temperature of 651°C before it will catch fire itself. However, the presence of oil or other combustible materials can increase the risk of fire by reducing this auto-ignition temperature. Ammonia can catch fire upon contact with strong oxidising agents.
Explosiveness: Ammonia requires a concentration of at least 15% (150,000 ppm: fatal concentration) and the presence of a source of ignition to explode. Ammonia can explode upon contact with strong oxidising agents.
- Refrigeration industry (as a refrigerant)
- To manufacture electronic or photovoltaic components
- To manufacture fertiliser
- Petrol and fuels
- To treat metals
- Organic synthesis
- Textile fibre industry
- Cleaning solutions
- Paper industry
Ammonia : Warnings and caution
H221 - Flammable gas.
H280 - Contains gas under pressure; may explode if heated.
H314 - Causes severe skin burns and eye damage.
H331 - Toxic if inhaled.
H400 - Very toxic to aquatic life.
P260 - Do not breathe gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P271 - Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.
P280 - Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P304+P340 - IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.
P342+P311 - If experiencing respiratory symptoms: Call a POISON CENTRE or doctor/physician.
Ammonia : Related products
Portable Gas Detectors
Multi-Gas Area Monitors